Up in smoke

rich man and lazarus

Isaiah 34:6-11 v6 Yahveh has a bloody sword; it is blood filled. It is covered with bloody fat from lambs and goats, from fat of rams’ kidneys, because Yahveh has a sacrifice planned for Bozrah and a huge slaughter planned for the land of Edom. v7 And wild oxen will go down with them, and steers […]

Classical theology and conditional immortality

In Christian discussions about human nature and destiny, conditional immortality is still regarded by some people as a view without a home in historic Christian thought. They might expect us to appeal to emotion or to our sense of fairness and love, but they might not expect us to provide a robust biblical case, and […]

Hell is an apologetics concern

This is a talk that I had the pleasure of giving to Reasonable Faith in Los Angeles in July 2014. I’m grateful to my host Chris Sandoval, and especially to the generous folks at the Conditional Immortality Association here in New Zealand who got me there. In short. The traditional doctrine of hell is a real concern […]



  “…his Bride has made herself ready…” (Rev. 19:7). Tomorrow will be a day of glorification for the saved. Our response to God’s grace will enable us to take our place as Christ’s eternal bride. We need to live ready for the return of Christ.     The more we learn about our future as […]



“…gather for the great supper of God…” (Rev. 19:17). Tomorrow will be a day of complete devastation for the unsaved. The fury of God’s wrath will destroy and consume all his enemies. Fire will be the means of that destruction. God’s word gives us so much insight into our future. But there is a temptation […]

An Overview of Final Punishment in Matthew’s Gospel

matthew and eternal punishment

by James D. Gallé Saturday, 25 January 2014 When arguing for their perspective of final punishment in Matthew, advocates of the conventional view of endless conscious torment (ECT) will typically argue in the following manner:  Matthew 25:41,46 teaches the endless conscious torment of the finally unrepentant.  Therefore, Matthew 10:28 cannot teach annihilationism. What if we […]

coaching for the mission in Jewish Galilee | the harvest is plentiful


The prophet Isaiah had predicted that the northern territories, once the possession of the tribes of Zebulun and Naphtali, would have a special place in God’s messianic plan. This land of Galilee, so surrounded by Gentiles and Samaritans that it was called “Galilee of the nations” would be the first to see the Messiah.1 In their […]



The ancient Greeks had ten ways of describing a process that goes on perpetually without end: They could use the adverb aei, meaning ever, or always. They could use the prefix aien, meaning the same idea when attached to a word describing a process, like aienaoidos, which means ever-singing, or aienaos, which means ever-flowing. They […]

Beasts and Superbeasts Feel the Heat | The Problem of Eternal Conscious Punishment

The conditionalist view

(Presented by Dr. David Richmond at the CIANZ 2013 conference on the 11th May) The title of this lecture: Beasts and Superbeasts is a play on the name of a 1914 book by Saki, a pseudonym for Howard Henry Munro.  This book of short stories was one of the late Rev. John Stott’s favourite pieces […]

only two destinies

two destinies

  There are a number of views on the afterlife that are held by different groups.  Conditionalists believe that there are only two eternal destinies: life or death. The saved will be rewarded with permanent life, while the lost will suffer permanent death. In this chapter of my book An Advent Christian Systematic Theology, I […]