A final punishment bibliography
Jefferson Vann provides a list of resources for the study of the final punishment of the wicked, particularly suited for either the defence or the refutation of the doctrine of the total destruction of the wicked – sometimes referred to as annihilationism.
The following resources should prove helpful for the study of the final punishment of the wicked, for either the defence or the refutation of the doctrine of the doctrine of the total destruction of the wicked – sometimes referred to as annihilationism. Conditionalists believe that all the wicked will be raised and punished for their sins at some point, and ultimately destroyed in the lake of fire. These resources show that this view has been held by many and debated throughout the centuries.
For those works in which the text is available free online, I have made these references a hyperlink, so that the reader can click on the reference and open the resource online. I have also endeavoured to ascertain which position the author holds, and divided the bibliography into the three main perspectives: conditionalist, universalist, or traditionalist. However, readers should be aware that some of these works present and/or defend multiple perspectives.
Works that argue for the final destruction of the wicked (the conditionalist perspective):
Bacchiocchi, Samuele. Immortality or Resurrection? A Biblical Study on Human Nature and Destiny (1997).
Barton, Freeman. Heaven, Hell, and Hades: A Historical and Theological Survey of Personal Eschatology. Lenox, Mass: Henceforth Publications, 1990.
Date, Christopher M., Gregory G. Stump, and Joshua W. Anderson. Rethinking Hell: Readings in Evangelical Conditionalism. 2014.
Date, Christopher M., Ron Highfield, and Stephen Travis. A Consuming Passion: Essays on Hell and Immortality in Honor of Edward Fudge. 2015.
Froom, Le Roy Edwin. The Conditionalist Faith of Our Fathers: The Conflict of the Ages Over the Nature and Destiny of Man. Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald, 1977.
Fudge, Edward. Hell: A Final Word: the Surprising Truths I Found in the Bible. Abilene, Tex: Leafwood Publishers, 2012
Fudge, Edward. The Fire That Consumes: A Biblical and Historical Study of the Doctrine of Final Punishment. Eugene, Or: Cascade Books, 2011.
Fudge, Edward. The Old Testament Background to Some New Testament Language Concerning Final Punishment. 1981.
Fudge, Edward, and Robert A. Peterson. Two Views of Hell: A Biblical & Theological Dialogue. Downers Grove, Ill: InterVarsity Press, 2000.
Green, Michael. Evangelism Through the Local Church. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1990.
Hastings, H. L, and David A Dean. The Last Judgment: New Testament Facts Vs. Modern Fiction. (Sterling, VA: Grace Abounding Ministries, 1995).
Hudson, Charles F. Human Destiny: A Critique on Universalism. (New York: G.W. Carleton, 1862).
Hudson, Charles Frederic. Christ Our Life: The Scriptural Argument for Immortality Through Christ Alone (1860).
Hudson, Charles F. Eternal Death in the Literal Sense Is Eternal Punishment. (New York: Budd and Carleton, 1860).
Hughes, Philip Edgcumbe. The True Image: The Origin and Destiny of Man in Christ. (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1989).
Lewis, Eric. Life and Immortality. (London: E. Stock, 1949).
McFarland, Norman, and J. Howard Shaw. Delivered from Death. (Boston: Advent Christian Publication Society, 1963).
McKnight, Scot, and Scot McKnight. 2014. “Can Hell Be Restorative?” Jesus Creed. 2014-08.
McKnight, Scot, and Scot McKnight. 2014. “Rethinking Hell: Evangelical Conditionalism“. Jesus Creed. 2014-06.
McKnight, Scot, “The Bible’s General Trend and Hell”. Jesus Creed. 2014-07.
McKnight, Scot, and Scot McKnight. 2014. “The Clobber Text for ECT-Ers”. Jesus Creed. 2014-07.
McKnight, Scot, and Scot McKnight. 2014. “The Nature of Final Destiny”. Jesus Creed. 2014-07.
Nichols, James A. Christian Doctrines: A Presentation of Biblical Theology. (Nutley, New Jersey: Craig Press, 1970).
Pinnock, Clark H. “Fire, Then Nothing,” Christianity Today 31 (March 20, 1987):40-41.
Pinnock, Clark H. “The Destruction of the Finally Impenitent”. Truth According to Scripture.
Prestidge, Warren. Life, Death and Destiny. 2nd revised edition. (Warren Prestidge, 2010).
Sellman, Paul. The Tree of Life: A Biblical Study of Immortality & New Creation. (Denver, Col.: Outskirts Press, 2010).
Travis, Stephen. Christ and the Judgement of God: The Limits of Divine Retribution in New Testament Thought. Milton Keynes: Paternoster, 2009.
Travis, Stephen H. Christian Hope and the Future of Man. Leicester: Inter-Varsity Press, 1980.
Travis, Stephen H. I Believe in the Second Coming of Jesus. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1988.
Vann, Jefferson. An Advent Christian Systematic Theology. (Amazon Digital Services, LLC, 2014).
Vann, Jefferson. Another Bible Commentary. (Amazon Digital Services, LLC, 2014).
Welch, Charles (c. 1910). “The Immortality of the Soul and The doctrine of demons”. The Berean Expositor. 1: 64–6.
Works that argue for the ultimate restoration of the wicked (the universalist perspective):
Baring, Charles. Thoughts on Final Universal Restoration. Exmouth: Printed by J. Radford, 1823.
Brown, Thomas, and George Wood. A History of the Origin and Progress of the Doctrine of Universal Salvation.: Also, the Final Reconciliation of All Men to Holiness and Happiness, Fully and Clearly Proved from Scripture, Reason and Common Sense. : And the Principal Texts of Scripture, Commonly Understood to Mean Never-Ending Punishment for Sin, Examined, and the True Scriptural Sense of Them Clearly Explained. : The Dreadful Doctrine of Endless Misery Investigated, and the Long Controversy, Whether of Not All Men Will Finally Be Saved, Decided. Albany: Printed for the author by G. Wood, 1826.
Ely, Ezra Stiles, and Abel C. Thomas. A Discussion of the Conjoint Question: Is the Doctrine of Endless Punishment Taught in the Bible? or Does the Bible Teach the Doctrine of the Final Holiness and Happiness of All Mankind? Cincinnati: Williamson & Cantwell, 1878.
Jersak, Brad. Her Gates Will Never Be Shut: Hope, Hell, and the New Jerusalem. Eugene, Or: Wipf & Stock Publishers, 2009.
Fenn, James. A Humble Plea for the Benevolence of God in the Restoration and Final Happiness of All Men, in a Few Remarks on the Doctrine of Partial Grace and Endless Punishment for Sin. Schenectady: Printed for the author, 1816.
Hall, Lindsey. Swinburne’s Hell and Hick’s Universalism: Are We Free to Reject God? 2018
Harmon, Kendall S. Finally Excluded from God?: Some Twentieth Century Theological Explorations of the Problem of Hell and Universalism with Reference to the Historical Development of These Doctrines. Ph. D. Diss.,Oxford University,1993.
Wilson, J. Victor. Reasons for Our Hope: Comprising Upwards of a Thousand Scriptural Evidences, Direct, Illustrative, and Collateral, of the Doctrine of the Final Salvation of All the Human Family, Demonstrating the Bible to Be a Universalist Book. Boston: T. Whittemore, 1846.
Winchester, Elhanan. An Attempt to Collect the Scripture Passages in Favour of the Universal Restoration, As Connected with the Doctrine of Rewards and Punishments All Tending to Prove, the Universal Empire of Christ, the Total Destruction of Evil, and the Final Re-Establishment of Lapsed Intelligences. Providence: Printed by Bennett Wheeler, 1786.
Works that argue for the endless torment of the wicked (the traditionalist perspective):
Buenting, Joel. The Problem of Hell: A Philosophical Anthology. London: Routledge, 2016.
Cameron, Nigel M. de S. Universalism and the Doctrine of Hell. Grand Rapids, Mich: Baker Book House, 1993.
Chafer, Lewis Sperry. Systematic Theology. Dallas: Dallas Seminary Press, 1947.
Cullom, W. R. The Final Fate of the Impenitent. (Th. D. Thesis, Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, 1904.
Culver, Robert Duncan. The Doctrine of Endless Punishment: A Theological Summary. Houston, Minn: R. Culver, 1992.
Douty, Norman F. Another Look at Seventh-Day Adventism, With Special Reference, Questions on Doctrine. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1962.
Eckley, Joseph. Divine Glory, Brought to View, In the Condemnation of the Ungodly: or the Doctrine of Future Punishment, Illustrated and Vindicated, As Rational and True. In Reply to a Late Pamphlet, Entitled, Salvation for All Men. Boston: Printed by Robert Hodge, at his Office, in Marshall’s lane, near the Boston Stone, 1782.
Edwards, David L., and John R. W. Stott. Evangelical Essentials: A Liberal-Evangelical Dialogue. Downers Grove, Ill: InterVarsity Press, 1989. (Stott argues a conditionalist perspective).
Evangelical Alliance. The Nature of Hell. London: ACUTE (Paternoster Pub.), 2000.
Farley, Lawrence R. Unquenchable Fire: The Traditional Christian Teaching About Hell. 2017.
Goodwin, Thomas. A Discourse of the Punishment of Sin in Hell: Demonstrating the Wrath of God to Be the Immediate Cause Threof ; to Which Is Added, a Sermon, Proving a State of Glory for the Spirits of Just Men Upon Dissolution. London: Printed for J. Robinson, 1680.
Gregg, Steve. All You Want to Know About Hell: Three Christian Views of God’s Final Solution to the Problem of Sin. 2013.
Grudem, Wayne A. Systematic Theology: An Introduction to Biblical Doctrine. Grand Rapids, Mich: Zondervan, 2002.
Johnson, Hiram S. The Eternal Punishment of the Finally Impenitent Proved: And the Arguments Offered to Support Universalism Shown to Be Inconclusive, in Two Sermons Delivered Before the Universalians in Canton, January 1831 and at Their Request. Canton, N.Y.: C.C. Bill, printer, 1833.
Klousia, William L. Jesus’ Teaching Concerning the Final Destiny of the Wicked: With Special Reference to Annihilationism. Th. M. Thesis, Covenant Theological Seminary, 1993.
McCort, Thomas J. The Book of Revelation’s Teaching Concerning the Final Destiny of the Impenitent: (with Special Reference to Annihilationism). Th. M. Thesis, Covenant Theological Seminary, 1993.
Morgan, Christopher W., and Robert A. Peterson. Hell Under Fire: Modern Scholarship Reinvents Eternal Punishment. Grand Rapids, Mich: Zondervan, 2004.
Platz, Kevin S. A Lutheran Response to Conditionalism and Annihilationism. [Edmonton. Alta.]: [Concordia Lutheran Seminary], 2007.
Stoecklein, Paul J. To Be or Not to Be: An Examination of the Final State of the Wicked in the New Testament with Reference to the Current Debate between Eternal Torment and Annihilation. Portland, OR: TREN, M.A. thesis, Southern California College, 1994.
Thacher, Peter. That the Punishment of the Finally Impenitent Shall Be Eternal: Or, That All Men Shall Not Be Saved, Attempted to Be Proved and Illustrated in Three Sermons, Preached at Malden, October, 1782. Salem: Printed by Samuel Hall, and to be sold at his printing-office near the Court-house, 1783.
Vincent, Robert D. The Mitigation of Hell: An Historical-Theological Analysis of the Conditionalist Assault on the Doctrine of Endless Conscious Punishment by Conservative Evangelical British and American Theologians from 1850-1999. Ph. D. Diss., Bob Jones University, 1999.
West, Hope J. The Hermeneutics of Conditionalists and Traditionalists Concerning the Doctrine of Final Punishment. M.A. thesis, Trinity International University, 2000.
Wolff, Richard. The Final Destiny of the Heathen. Ridgefield Park, N.J.: Interdenominational Foreign Mission Assn, 1961.[No doubt, readers of Afterlife will find some books or articles omitted that they expected to be here. You are invited to respond with suggested additions and/or corrections by commenting below. Thank you. Jefferson Vann.]